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The U.S. coal industry is comprised of utility companies, mining operations, merchant power companies, and rail-to-port business. Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and Pennsylvania are the largest coal producers, with about 639 million tons produced in 2016 (71% of total U.S. production).

Business segments within the coal industry are categorized according to underground, surface, or transport use. The surface part of the business includes draglines, shovels, loaders, haul-trucks, blast-hole drills, and various types of dozers & graders operating above ground.  The underground segment typically includes longwall machines, continuous miners, roof bolters, shuttle cars, and underground rail & scoops.

Coal transport businesses include barges, railroad cars, and trucks.

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